【强化学习】深度确定性策略梯度(DDPG)算法求解 Pendulum 问题 + Pytorch代码实战

发布于:2022-11-09 ⋅ 阅读:(3) ⋅ 点赞:(0) ⋅ 评论:(0)


一、Pendulum问题介绍

动作:往左转还是往右转,用力矩来衡量,即力乘以力臂。范围[-2,2]
状态:cos(theta), sin(theta) , thetadot(角速度)
奖励:总的来说,越直立拿到的奖励越高,越偏离,奖励越低。
游戏结束:200步后游戏结束。所以要在200步内拿到的分越高越好。

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二、深度确定性策略梯度(DDPG)算法

关于详细的深度确定性策略梯度(DDPG)算法的介绍,请看我之前发的博客:

三、Python代码实战

3.1 运行前配置

准备好一个RL_Utils.py文件,文件内容可以从我的一篇里博客获取:【RL工具类】强化学习常用函数工具类(Python代码)

这一步很重要,后面需要引入该RL_Utils.py文件

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3.2 主要代码

import warnings

warnings.filterwarnings("ignore")
import argparse
import datetime
import time
import torch.optim as optim
import torch.nn.functional as F
import gym
from torch import nn

# 这里需要改成自己的RL_Utils.py文件的路径
from Python.ReinforcementLearning.EasyRL.RL_Utils import *


# 将action范围重定在[0,1]之间
class NormalizedActions(gym.ActionWrapper):
    def action(self, action):
        low_bound = self.action_space.low
        upper_bound = self.action_space.high
        action = low_bound + (action + 1.0) * 0.5 * (upper_bound - low_bound)
        action = np.clip(action, low_bound, upper_bound)
        return action

    def reverse_action(self, action):
        low_bound = self.action_space.low
        upper_bound = self.action_space.high
        action = 2 * (action - low_bound) / (upper_bound - low_bound) - 1
        action = np.clip(action, low_bound, upper_bound)
        return action


# Ornstein–Uhlenbeck噪声
class OUNoise(object):
    def __init__(self, action_space, mu=0.0, theta=0.15, max_sigma=0.3, min_sigma=0.3, decay_period=100000):
        self.mu = mu  # OU噪声的参数
        self.theta = theta  # OU噪声的参数
        self.sigma = max_sigma  # OU噪声的参数
        self.max_sigma = max_sigma
        self.min_sigma = min_sigma
        self.decay_period = decay_period
        self.n_actions = action_space.shape[0]
        self.low = action_space.low
        self.high = action_space.high
        self.reset()

    def reset(self):
        self.obs = np.ones(self.n_actions) * self.mu

    def evolve_obs(self):
        x = self.obs
        dx = self.theta * (self.mu - x) + self.sigma * np.random.randn(self.n_actions)
        self.obs = x + dx
        return self.obs

    def get_action(self, action, t=0):
        ou_obs = self.evolve_obs()
        self.sigma = self.max_sigma - (self.max_sigma - self.min_sigma) * min(1.0, t / self.decay_period)  # sigma会逐渐衰减
        return np.clip(action + ou_obs, self.low, self.high)  # 动作加上噪声后进行剪切


# 经验回放对象
class ReplayBuffer:
    def __init__(self, capacity):
        self.capacity = capacity  # 经验回放的容量
        self.buffer = []  # 缓冲区
        self.position = 0

    def push(self, state, action, reward, next_state, done):
        ''' 缓冲区是一个队列,容量超出时去掉开始存入的转移(transition)
        '''
        if len(self.buffer) < self.capacity:
            self.buffer.append(None)
        self.buffer[self.position] = (state, action, reward, next_state, done)
        self.position = (self.position + 1) % self.capacity

    def sample(self, batch_size):
        batch = random.sample(self.buffer, batch_size)  # 随机采出小批量转移
        state, action, reward, next_state, done = zip(*batch)  # 解压成状态,动作等
        return state, action, reward, next_state, done

    def __len__(self):
        ''' 返回当前存储的量
        '''
        return len(self.buffer)


# 演员网络(给定状态,输出动作)
class Actor(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, n_states, n_actions, hidden_dim, init_w=3e-3):
        super(Actor, self).__init__()
        self.linear1 = nn.Linear(n_states, hidden_dim)
        self.linear2 = nn.Linear(hidden_dim, hidden_dim)
        self.linear3 = nn.Linear(hidden_dim, n_actions)

        self.linear3.weight.data.uniform_(-init_w, init_w)
        self.linear3.bias.data.uniform_(-init_w, init_w)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = F.relu(self.linear1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.linear2(x))
        x = torch.tanh(self.linear3(x))
        return x


# 评论员网络(给定状态-动作对,做出评价)
class Critic(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, n_states, n_actions, hidden_dim, init_w=3e-3):
        super(Critic, self).__init__()

        self.linear1 = nn.Linear(n_states + n_actions, hidden_dim)
        self.linear2 = nn.Linear(hidden_dim, hidden_dim)
        self.linear3 = nn.Linear(hidden_dim, 1)
        # 随机初始化为较小的值
        self.linear3.weight.data.uniform_(-init_w, init_w)
        self.linear3.bias.data.uniform_(-init_w, init_w)

    def forward(self, state, action):
        # 按维数1拼接
        x = torch.cat([state, action], 1)
        x = F.relu(self.linear1(x))
        x = F.relu(self.linear2(x))
        x = self.linear3(x)
        return x


# 深度确定性策略梯度算法对象
class DDPG:
    def __init__(self, n_states, n_actions, arg_dict):
        self.device = torch.device(arg_dict['device'])
        # DDPG要训练四个网络:Q网络,Q-target网络,策略网络,策略-target网络
        self.critic = Critic(n_states, n_actions, arg_dict['hidden_dim']).to(self.device)
        self.actor = Actor(n_states, n_actions, arg_dict['hidden_dim']).to(self.device)
        self.target_critic = Critic(n_states, n_actions, arg_dict['hidden_dim']).to(self.device)
        self.target_actor = Actor(n_states, n_actions, arg_dict['hidden_dim']).to(self.device)

        # 复制参数到目标网络
        for target_param, param in zip(self.target_critic.parameters(), self.critic.parameters()):
            target_param.data.copy_(param.data)
        for target_param, param in zip(self.target_actor.parameters(), self.actor.parameters()):
            target_param.data.copy_(param.data)

        self.critic_optimizer = optim.Adam(
            self.critic.parameters(), lr=arg_dict['critic_lr'])
        self.actor_optimizer = optim.Adam(self.actor.parameters(), lr=arg_dict['actor_lr'])
        self.memory = ReplayBuffer(arg_dict['memory_capacity'])
        self.batch_size = arg_dict['batch_size']
        self.soft_tau = arg_dict['soft_tau']  # 软更新参数
        self.gamma = arg_dict['gamma']

    def choose_action(self, state):
        state = torch.FloatTensor(state).unsqueeze(0).to(self.device)
        action = self.actor(state)
        return action.detach().cpu().numpy()[0, 0]

    def update(self):
        if len(self.memory) < self.batch_size:  # 当 memory 中不满足一个批量时,不更新策略
            return
        # 从经验回放中(replay memory)中随机采样一个批量的转移(transition)
        state, action, reward, next_state, done = self.memory.sample(self.batch_size)
        # 转变为张量
        state = torch.FloatTensor(np.array(state)).to(self.device)
        next_state = torch.FloatTensor(np.array(next_state)).to(self.device)
        action = torch.FloatTensor(np.array(action)).to(self.device)
        reward = torch.FloatTensor(reward).unsqueeze(1).to(self.device)
        done = torch.FloatTensor(np.float32(done)).unsqueeze(1).to(self.device)

        policy_loss = self.critic(state, self.actor(state))
        policy_loss = -policy_loss.mean()
        next_action = self.target_actor(next_state)
        target_value = self.target_critic(next_state, next_action.detach())
        expected_value = reward + (1.0 - done) * self.gamma * target_value
        expected_value = torch.clamp(expected_value, -np.inf, np.inf)

        value = self.critic(state, action)
        value_loss = nn.MSELoss()(value, expected_value.detach())

        self.actor_optimizer.zero_grad()
        policy_loss.backward()
        self.actor_optimizer.step()
        self.critic_optimizer.zero_grad()
        value_loss.backward()
        self.critic_optimizer.step()
        # 软更新
        for target_param, param in zip(self.target_critic.parameters(), self.critic.parameters()):
            target_param.data.copy_(
                target_param.data * (1.0 - self.soft_tau) +
                param.data * self.soft_tau
            )
        for target_param, param in zip(self.target_actor.parameters(), self.actor.parameters()):
            target_param.data.copy_(
                target_param.data * (1.0 - self.soft_tau) +
                param.data * self.soft_tau
            )

    def save_model(self, path):
        Path(path).mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True)
        torch.save(self.actor.state_dict(), path + 'checkpoint.pt')

    def load_model(self, path):
        self.actor.load_state_dict(torch.load(path + 'checkpoint.pt'))

    # 训练函数


def train(arg_dict, env, agent):
    # 开始计时
    startTime = time.time()
    print(f"环境名: {arg_dict['env_name']}, 算法名: {arg_dict['algo_name']}, Device: {arg_dict['device']}")
    print("开始训练智能体......")
    ou_noise = OUNoise(env.action_space)  # noise of action
    rewards = []  # 记录所有回合的奖励
    ma_rewards = []  # 记录所有回合的滑动平均奖励
    for i_ep in range(arg_dict['train_eps']):
        state = env.reset()
        ou_noise.reset()
        done = False
        ep_reward = 0
        i_step = 0
        while not done:
            if arg_dict['train_render']:
                env.render()
            i_step += 1
            action = agent.choose_action(state)
            action = ou_noise.get_action(action, i_step)
            next_state, reward, done, _ = env.step(action)
            ep_reward += reward
            agent.memory.push(state, action, reward, next_state, done)
            agent.update()
            state = next_state
        if (i_ep + 1) % 10 == 0:
            print(f'Env:{i_ep + 1}/{arg_dict["train_eps"]}, Reward:{ep_reward:.2f}')
        rewards.append(ep_reward)
        if ma_rewards:
            ma_rewards.append(0.9 * ma_rewards[-1] + 0.1 * ep_reward)
        else:
            ma_rewards.append(ep_reward)
    print('训练结束 , 用时: ' + str(time.time() - startTime) + " s")
    # 关闭环境
    env.close()
    return {'episodes': range(len(rewards)), 'rewards': rewards, 'ma_rewards': ma_rewards}


# 测试函数
def test(arg_dict, env, agent):
    startTime = time.time()
    print("开始测试智能体......")
    print(f"环境名: {arg_dict['env_name']}, 算法名: {arg_dict['algo_name']}, Device: {arg_dict['device']}")
    rewards = []  # 记录所有回合的奖励
    ma_rewards = []  # 记录所有回合的滑动平均奖励
    for i_ep in range(arg_dict['test_eps']):
        state = env.reset()
        done = False
        ep_reward = 0
        i_step = 0
        while not done:
            if arg_dict['test_render']:
                env.render()
            i_step += 1
            action = agent.choose_action(state)
            next_state, reward, done, _ = env.step(action)
            ep_reward += reward
            state = next_state
        rewards.append(ep_reward)
        if ma_rewards:
            ma_rewards.append(0.9 * ma_rewards[-1] + 0.1 * ep_reward)
        else:
            ma_rewards.append(ep_reward)
        print(f"Epside:{i_ep + 1}/{arg_dict['test_eps']}, Reward:{ep_reward:.1f}")
    print("测试结束 , 用时: " + str(time.time() - startTime) + " s")
    env.close()
    return {'episodes': range(len(rewards)), 'rewards': rewards}


# 创建环境和智能体
def create_env_agent(arg_dict):
    env = NormalizedActions(gym.make(arg_dict['env_name']))  # 装饰action噪声
    env.seed(arg_dict['seed'])  # 随机种子
    n_states = env.observation_space.shape[0]
    n_actions = env.action_space.shape[0]
    agent = DDPG(n_states, n_actions, arg_dict)
    return env, agent


if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 防止报错 OMP: Error #15: Initializing libiomp5md.dll, but found libiomp5md.dll already initialized.
    os.environ["KMP_DUPLICATE_LIB_OK"] = "TRUE"
    # 获取当前路径
    curr_path = os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__))
    # 获取当前时间
    curr_time = datetime.datetime.now().strftime("%Y_%m_%d-%H_%M_%S")
    # 相关参数设置
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="hyper parameters")
    parser.add_argument('--algo_name', default='DDPG', type=str, help="name of algorithm")
    parser.add_argument('--env_name', default='Pendulum-v1', type=str, help="name of environment")
    parser.add_argument('--train_eps', default=300, type=int, help="episodes of training")
    parser.add_argument('--test_eps', default=20, type=int, help="episodes of testing")
    parser.add_argument('--gamma', default=0.99, type=float, help="discounted factor")
    parser.add_argument('--critic_lr', default=1e-3, type=float, help="learning rate of critic")
    parser.add_argument('--actor_lr', default=1e-4, type=float, help="learning rate of actor")
    parser.add_argument('--memory_capacity', default=8000, type=int, help="memory capacity")
    parser.add_argument('--batch_size', default=128, type=int)
    parser.add_argument('--target_update', default=2, type=int)
    parser.add_argument('--soft_tau', default=1e-2, type=float)
    parser.add_argument('--hidden_dim', default=256, type=int)
    parser.add_argument('--device', default='cuda', type=str, help="cpu or cuda")
    parser.add_argument('--seed', default=520, type=int, help="seed")
    parser.add_argument('--show_fig', default=False, type=bool, help="if show figure or not")
    parser.add_argument('--save_fig', default=True, type=bool, help="if save figure or not")
    parser.add_argument('--train_render', default=False, type=bool,
                        help="Whether to render the environment during training")
    parser.add_argument('--test_render', default=True, type=bool,
                        help="Whether to render the environment during testing")
    args = parser.parse_args()
    default_args = {'result_path': f"{curr_path}/outputs/{args.env_name}/{curr_time}/results/",
                    'model_path': f"{curr_path}/outputs/{args.env_name}/{curr_time}/models/",
                    }
    # 将参数转化为字典 type(dict)
    arg_dict = {**vars(args), **default_args}
    print("算法参数字典:", arg_dict)

    # 创建环境和智能体
    env, agent = create_env_agent(arg_dict)
    # 传入算法参数、环境、智能体,然后开始训练
    res_dic = train(arg_dict, env, agent)
    print("算法返回结果字典:", res_dic)
    # 保存相关信息
    agent.save_model(path=arg_dict['model_path'])
    save_args(arg_dict, path=arg_dict['result_path'])
    save_results(res_dic, tag='train', path=arg_dict['result_path'])
    plot_rewards(res_dic['rewards'], arg_dict, path=arg_dict['result_path'], tag="train")

    # =================================================================================================
    # 创建新环境和智能体用来测试
    print("=" * 300)
    env, agent = create_env_agent(arg_dict)
    # 加载已保存的智能体
    agent.load_model(path=arg_dict['model_path'])
    res_dic = test(arg_dict, env, agent)
    save_results(res_dic, tag='test', path=arg_dict['result_path'])
    plot_rewards(res_dic['rewards'], arg_dict, path=arg_dict['result_path'], tag="test")

3.3 运行结果展示

部分输出:

环境名: Pendulum-v1, 算法名: DDPG, Device: cuda
开始训练智能体......
Env:10/300, Reward:-514.63
Env:20/300, Reward:-257.10
Env:30/300, Reward:-374.82
Env:40/300, Reward:-374.79
Env:50/300, Reward:-376.84
Env:60/300, Reward:-618.92
Env:70/300, Reward:-256.16
Env:80/300, Reward:-626.38
Env:90/300, Reward:-644.01
Env:100/300, Reward:-534.69
Env:110/300, Reward:-499.96
Env:120/300, Reward:-472.34
Env:130/300, Reward:-261.39
Env:140/300, Reward:-380.94
Env:150/300, Reward:-384.42
Env:160/300, Reward:-744.95
Env:170/300, Reward:-407.66
Env:180/300, Reward:-744.57
Env:190/300, Reward:-380.46
Env:200/300, Reward:-504.49
Env:210/300, Reward:-505.49
Env:220/300, Reward:-634.64
Env:230/300, Reward:-626.34
Env:240/300, Reward:-599.63
Env:250/300, Reward:-624.56
Env:260/300, Reward:-878.27
Env:270/300, Reward:-746.17
Env:280/300, Reward:-509.80
Env:290/300, Reward:-499.35
Env:300/300, Reward:-636.66
训练结束 , 用时: 327.0484480857849 s
============================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
开始测试智能体......
环境名: Pendulum-v1, 算法名: DDPG, Device: cuda
Epside:1/20, Reward:-24.8
Epside:2/20, Reward:-149.3
Epside:3/20, Reward:-25.1
Epside:4/20, Reward:-147.2
Epside:5/20, Reward:-138.2
Epside:6/20, Reward:-139.3
Epside:7/20, Reward:-142.8
Epside:8/20, Reward:-143.2
Epside:9/20, Reward:-26.7
Epside:10/20, Reward:-24.8
Epside:11/20, Reward:-143.6
Epside:12/20, Reward:-253.4
Epside:13/20, Reward:-141.3
Epside:14/20, Reward:-337.7
Epside:15/20, Reward:-338.8
Epside:16/20, Reward:-147.8
Epside:17/20, Reward:-25.3
Epside:18/20, Reward:-253.8
Epside:19/20, Reward:-150.2
Epside:20/20, Reward:-145.0
测试结束 , 用时: 30.252137422561646 s

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3.4 关于可视化的设置

如果你觉得可视化比较耗时,你可以进行设置,取消可视化。
或者你想看看训练过程的可视化,也可以进行相关设置

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